On April 24, 2017, researchers from Duke University released “The Geochemistry of Naturally Occurring Methane and Saline Groundwater in an Area of Unconventional Shale Gas Development” – a peer reviewed study that examined the effects of hydraulic fracturing activities on water quality in West Virginia. Significantly, the study tested water wells before and after nearby hydraulic fracturing activities, and found that the test results “showed no evidence of anthropogenic contamination” in groundwater. The study also examined the effects of fluid spills on nearby surface waters, finding that the chemistry and isotope ratios of surface waters near known spills or leaks mimicked the composition of Marcellus flowback fluids. The study’s finding with respect to surface waters is unsurprising given that the researchers specifically targeted water bodies nearby reported spills. The industry blog Energy in Depth has posted an extensive analysis of the study.